Thursday, May 24, 2007

ยาต้านเศร้า Fluoxetine อาจออกฤทธิ์ต่อระบบของสารสื่อประสาท GABA

รายงานนี้นำเสนอหลักฐานทางประสาทเคมีเกี่ยวกับระดับสารสื่อประสาทกาบาที่เปลี่ยนแปลงเมื่อได้รับยา fluoxetine

Fluoxetine Partly Exerts its Actions Through GABA: A Neurochemical Evidence.
Neurochem Res. 2007 May 8

Fluoxetine, as a serotonin re-uptake inhibitor augments serotonin concentration within the synapse by inhibiting the serotonin transporter. The contribution of amino acids has also been shown in depression. We hypothesized that fluoxetine exerts its actions at least in part by intervening brain signaling operated by amino acid transmitters. Therefore the aim of this study is to supply neurochemical evidence that fluoxetine produces changes in amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid of rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and concentric microdialysis probes were implanted stereotaxically into the right lateral ventricle. Intraperitoneal fluoxetine (2.5 or 5 mg/kg) or physiological saline was administered and the probes were perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid at a rate of 1 mul/min. In the chronic fluoxetine group, the rats were treated daily with oral fluoxetine solution or inert syrup for 3 weeks. The microdialysis probes were placed on the 21st day and perfused the next day. Fluoxetine was ineffective in changing the cerebrospinal fluid GABA levels at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg but produced a significant increase in the perfusates following injection of 5 mg/kg of fluoxetine (P <> These neurochemical findings show that fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor affects brain GABA levels indirectly, and our results suggest that acute or chronic effects may be involved in beneficial and/or adverse effects of the drug.


Chronically administered fluoxetine enhances the anticonvulsant activity of conventional antiepileptic drugs in the mouse maximal electroshock model.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Mar 24

Interactions between chronically administered fluoxetine and valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, or phenobarbital were studied in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Fluoxetine administered for 14 days at doses up to 20 mg/kg failed to affect the electroconvulsive threshold. Nevertheless the drug (at 15 and 20 mg) enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of valproate, carbamazepine, and phenytoin. When applied at 20 mg/kg, it potentiated the protective action of phenobarbital. Fluoxetine, antiepileptic drugs, and their combinations did not produce significant adverse effects evaluated in the chimney test (motor coordination) and passive-avoidance task (long-term memory). Chronically applied fluoxetine significantly increased the brain concentrations of valproate, carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin, indicating a pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed pharmacodynamic interactions. In conclusion, long-term treatment with fluoxetine exhibited some favorable effects on the anticonvulsant properties of conventional antiepileptic drugs, resulting, however, from pharmacokinetic interactions.


Single alcohol exposure in early life damages hippocampal stem/progenitor cells and reduces adult neurogenesis.

Neurobiol Dis. 2007 Jun;26(3):597-605. Epub 2007 Mar 28

Alcohol exposure during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), characterized by impaired cognitive functions. Neurogenesis occurs in the adult hippocampus and is functionally associated with learning, memory, and mood disorders. However, whether early postnatal exposure to alcohol impairs neurogenesis and through which mechanisms it occurs is poorly understood. Here, we report that a single episode of alcohol exposure in postnatal day 7 (P7) decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Furthermore, we demonstrate a co-localization of glial fibrillar acidic protein, nestin, and vimentin with activated caspase-3 12 h after ethanol treatment. Finally, we show that the number of primary neurospheres derived from the hippocampi of alcohol-exposed mice is reduced compared to controls. These findings suggest that alcohol exposure in postnatal mice reduces the pool of neural stem/progenitor cells in the DG, and subsequently results in a decrease of adult neurogenesis. This may explain certain aspects of impaired hippocampal functions in FAS.